Oxidation Numbers Page:
Covalent bonds - electrons are shared between atoms.
Chemical bonding is often expressed as percentages of ionic characteristics and covalent characteristics.
- Atoms with a high electron affinity usually form covalent bonds.
- Since both bonding atoms have a high attraction for the electrons, the shared electrons spend most of their time between the two atoms.
- The force of attraction between both nuclei and the shared electrons hold the atoms together in a covalent bond.
- Multiple pairs of electrons may be shared between atoms, forming multiple bonds.
- The number of electron pairs shared is expressed by bond order.
- The closer atoms are to each other on the periodic table, the more covalent their bond characteristics.
- The farther apart atoms are on the periodic table, the more ionic their bond characteristics.